Focus on Language Education and Research

Focus on Language Education and Research is an international forum for both invited and contributed peer reviewed articles that advance language education at all levels and current issues and challenges for research educational practice in the teaching, learning, and assessment.

The journal publishes a broad range of papers covering best teaching practices, experimental results, contemporary teaching issues.

The journal is directed to those concerned with the functioning of language education, including universities, graduate and professional schools. It is of primary interest to institutional researchers and planners, faculty, college and university administrators.

Types of content:

  • Relationships between policy, theory and practice
  • Pedagogical practices in classrooms and less formal settings
  • English learning/teaching in all phases, from early learners to higher and adult education
  • Policy and practice in Russia
  • Classroom practice in all its aspects
  • Classroom-based research
  • Methodological questions in teaching and research
  • Multilingualism and multiculturalism
  • New technologies and foreign languages

In addition to original research articles, the journal publishes case studies and reviews of books, media, software, and other relevant products.


Current Issue

Vol 4, No 2 (2023)

Cover Page

Full Issue


Means of formation socio-cultural competence in teaching English
Korovina I.V., Gorshenina L.I., Prynzina A.V.

In recent decades, the vector in the formation of students’ competencies while studying a foreign language (in particular, English) has shifted in Russian linguodidactics. Due to the intensity of intercultural contacts of Russian citizens, the most demanded competence while studying foreign languages has become the communicative one, which consists of skills of effective oral and written communication with representatives of other cultures. Under contemporary circumstances, effective intercultural communication requires not only well-formed grammatical and lexical skills, but also socio-cultural competence, which means knowledge of various cultural facts and phenomena, as well as knowledge of the norms of polite dialogue in a different culture and the ability to conduct it. The issue of effective formation of students’ socio-cultural competence when teaching a foreign language (in particular, English) is absolutely new in Russian linguodidactics and is poorly covered, which determines the relevance and novelty of the research, the results of which are presented in this article. The purpose of this article is to describe two tools for the formation of socio-cultural competence that can be used in English classes. As the theoretical base of the study, the authors identified three key components of socio-cultural competence that need to be formed while teaching a foreign language. Further, using the method of continuous sampling in two English manuals, the authors found one tool for the formation of socio-cultural competence – hedging, which was analyzed for its use for the formation of the components of socio-cultural competence. The article presents various lexico-grammatical means of implementing hedging in English and shows how they can be used in the formation of various components of socio-cultural competence. In addition to the tool for the formation of socio-cultural competence (hedging) available in the English manuals, the authors proposed another contemporary tool for the formation of various components of socio-cultural competence, which is currently not included in English manuals, - namely, web-quests. The authors give examples of several designed web-quests that contain various linguistic and cultural facts, and clearly illustrate how such web-quests contribute to the formation of all components of socio-cultural competence.

Focus on Language Education and Research. 2023;4(2):3-30
pages 3-30 views
Selection of pedagogical conditions for teaching modern preschoolers
Dudovich D.L., Uvarova Y.V.

This article is devoted to determining the features of teaching foreign languages to modern preschoolers. The study of the works of domestic and foreign researchers indicates clear differences between generations Z and Alpha, which proves the need to adjust pedagogical conditions taking into account the peculiarities of teaching modern preschoolers. The negative and positive characteristics of a modern preschooler are highlighted, which determine the selection of appropriate pedagogical conditions for teaching foreign languages to modern preschoolers, which include visual means of transmitting information, the novelty of the tasks used, the alternation of active and calm, individual and group tasks, and the time interval.

Focus on Language Education and Research. 2023;4(2):31-44
pages 31-44 views
CLIL technologies on the example of European countries
Misyureva A.O., Sannikova S.V.

Modern social, political and economic conditions require the introduction of integrated approaches to the education system in order to prepare future specialists capable of intellectual flexibility and complex problem solving. This article reflects the problems of introducing the technology of subject-language integrated learning (CLIL) and its use in the educational process on the example of European countries. In addition, the article discusses the origins of the methodology of early teaching of foreign languages as a science, and the various views and beliefs of theorists and practitioners in this field. The essence and content of the integrated subject-language approach as the basis for the formation of subject foreign language competence are determined. The main components of CLIL are highlighted: content, communication, cognition and culture, as well as three types of language associated with it, including language of instruction, language for instruction and language through instruction. In addition, the advantages of CLIL are described in terms of the materials used in the lessons, the instrumental nature of a foreign language, and the development of the language personality and abilities of students. The conditions that lead to the development of such educational programs in an educational organization are analyzed; the difficulties arising in their implementation are identified. The main methodological prerequisites that should underlie educational initiatives in the study of subjects in a foreign language are considered. The key problems that can be encountered in the development of such programs are analyzed. The identified problems indicate the need for foreign language teachers to search for the most optimal and appropriate educational technologies for the formation of foreign language communicative competence in future philologists. The ways of solving the identified problems are also considered; recommendations for using CLIL in the educational process are given. As a result, after analyzing the history, methodology and main features of the CLIL technology as a whole, we come to the conclusion that it can be fully or partially introduced into the higher education system. The aim of the study is to study the experience of using CLIL technology in foreign education systems. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the disclosure of the essence and content of the subject-language integrated approach, which is focused on achieving the dual goal of learning, in which the second language is used as a means of teaching the subject and the object of study. The material of the article substantiates the relevance, expediency and effectiveness of the use of subject-language integrated learning in English classes, and also summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of its use in teaching English.

Focus on Language Education and Research. 2023;4(2):45-60
pages 45-60 views
Factor analysis of motives and needs for professional development of English language teachers
Igolkina N.I.

The modern education system offers teachers a wide range of forms of professional development approaches in the framework of formal and non-formal education. The choice of a professional development program depends on teachers and is determined by the goals and objectives that they face. In order to assess the influence of teachers' motives and needs on the decisions to take a professional development course, a survey was conducted in which the respondents were English teachers (N=103) working in public and private educational institutions with different teaching experience. The survey participants were asked to assess the relevance of 15 possible motives for professional development on a five-point scale. The obtained results and its statistical processing allowed us to assess and compare the degree of the influence which the proposed motives and needs have on the teachers’ decisions concerning professional development. The comparison of average scores showed that, according to the respondents, the relevance of the proposed motives and needs demonstrates a significant (from 1,7 to 4,1 points) spread, which allowed us to build a hierarchy of the motives and needs that encourage English teachers to improve their skills. The most important were the following: "the need for language development" (average score – 4,1), "own curiosity and curiosity" (average score – 4), "the desire to diversify lessons and get away from routine" (average score – 3,9). The least relevant were "self–doubt" (average score – 1,7), "students’ request" (average score – 2) and "co-financing by the employer" (average score – 2,2). The article also provides the result of the factor analysis of the obtained estimates. Principal component analysis identified four main components encouraging teachers to improve their skills that explain 68,9% of the total variance.  It was revealed that the most significant factor (factor weight 44,2%) is the teachers’ desire for professional realisation while maintaining emotional stability. The other three factors with the total factor weight of 24,7% show that the need for advanced training is realised by teachers as their teaching experience accumulates (2nd factor) and as the result of the willingness of experienced teachers to meet emerging learners needs and demands, provided co-financing from the employer (3rd factor).  The fourth factor shows that the motivation for improving language competence may be generated by the desire to gain more confidence.

Focus on Language Education and Research. 2023;4(2):61-76
pages 61-76 views
Lingvocultural features of argumentation
Mullina A.M., Safonkina O.S.

In current times the study of business communication is becoming particularly relevant due to the increasing interest in entrepreneurial activity. In this regard, the study and optimization of the processes of intercultural communication between representatives of different countries become all the more important. One of the crucial stages in establishing business relations with other companies, including organizations located in other countries, is business negotiation process with representatives of these organizations, the success of which directly affects the further building of business relationships between organizations, as well as the nature and the longevity of these relationships. The ability to professionally conduct international business negotiations largely depends on the level of intercultural competence of the partners, on the ability to communicate effectively with representatives of other cultures, as well as on the ability to convince your business partner of your point of view. Persuasion in business communication occurs through arguments. Moreover, the degree of persuasiveness of the arguments depends on the characteristics of the national culture of the communication partner. In this regard, in the article, the authors show the results of their research aimed at identifying cultural characteristics that influence the use of different thinking styles and the use of different ways of argumentation in national cultures. As a research task, the authors defined an attempt to establish the relationship between existing cultural parameters, patterns of thinking, as well as the methods of argumentation used. The study was conducted at the intersection of linguoculturology, psychology and business communication. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the approach to the study of methods of argumentation, taking into account the national specifics of the thinking patterns of different peoples. Using such methods as the deductive method, analysis and comparison, the authors determined the cultural parameters that determine the choice of the method of argumentation by representatives of different linguistic and cultural communities. Moreover, the authors identified and described the characteristic features of each of the considered methods of argumentation and gave examples from the use in speech by speakers of different languages. As a result of the study, the authors established the relationship between the cultural characteristics of a certain ethnic group, the style of thinking and the preferred method of argumentation. Such a view of the argumentation process will be of interest to specialists in the field of business communication, intercultural communication and argumentation theory.

Focus on Language Education and Research. 2023;4(2):77-98
pages 77-98 views
Speech errors encountered in English debate competition
Faoziah E., Prihatin Y., Santoso M.

Debate was chosen as a teaching learning approach for enhancing speaking skills in English learners because it requires students to communicate with one another. Without referring to the text, they clash in English, both openly and informally. Debate provides an excellent opportunity to hone one's public speaking skills. The English debate is one of the competitions designed to assist students improve their public speaking skills. English debate necessitates thorough grasp of the language as well as proficiency in delivery and presentation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the types and frequency of speech errors committed by participants in an English debating competition. This is a qualitative descriptive study. This study included 12 participants: six from the Gonzaga competition and the other six from the SETARA competition. As research instruments, observations, analyses, and reports were used. The Clark and Clark theory of speech faults was applied in the study. The researchers discovered 860 data containing speech errors, with the following error types showing the highest to lowest frequency of occurrence: filled pause 34,61%, silent pause 25,00%, repeats 17,09%, retraced false start 11,16%, slip of the tongue 3,84%, unretracted false start 3,14%, stutters 3,26%, interjections 1,16%, and correction 0,07%. Based on the data analysis, the researchers find that practically all participants made mistakes throughout their speeches. The cognitive, psychological, and social factors that cause speakers to make errors in their speech were also identified as origins of those errors. The cognitive explanations concern pupils' knowledge and memory, such as vocabulary and grammatical expertise. Certain psychological factors, such as anxiousness and fear, are also taken into account when speakers (participants) make mistakes in their speech. Furthermore, social interactions, such as interpersonal encounters with individuals in the region, are viewed as one of the causes of English debate contestants' speech problems. Other academics are urged to conduct research on other speech faults in the future in order to get more knowledge in the same field of study.

Focus on Language Education and Research. 2023;4(2):99-114
pages 99-114 views

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